The couple is sitting at a table which rests on the ground, stable and solid, unlike their relationship in the shade of the station. The shade offers a temporary respite from the sun, much as waiting for a train is a respite from the journey or a break from a conversation most likely had many time before. A bamboo-beaded curtain hangs in the doorway to the bar to keep out flies unwanted pests. Bamboo is also hollow, so if a cross section of bamboo is examined, it is a ring.
This could represent the womb, empty. The curtain blows against the table, as if it is a reminder to Jig of the decision she must make. Could the two strands simply represent the duality of her situation? When the first of three rounds of beer are placed on the table by the waitress, it is set on felt pads.
These pads act as coasters, whose goal is to keep moisture away from the table. Because it is so hot outside, the glasses sweat. By the time the third round of beer is delivered, the coasters are damp. They have failed to prevent the moisture from touching the table. This could be symbolic of contraception failing, but instead of just a table getting wet, Jig becomes pregnant. Time is another interesting concept to analyze in this story.
When the story begins, the train is arriving from Barcelona in 40 minutes, it stops at the station for 2 minutes, and then it heads to Madrid. We have no idea how long the couple sits at the train station before the story begins, but at the end of the story, the waitress states that the train will arrive in five minutes. The man takes their bags to the other side of the station, looks up the tracks implying they will go down the track, to Madrid , then goes into the bar for another Anis before coming out to talk to Jig, who is still seated, indicating the train has not yet arrived.
The entire story, on the page, occurs in roughly minutes. When I teach this story in face-to-face classes, I have students read it aloud. The entire story, narration and all, usually takes 20 minutes to read. This means that approximately minutes of this story take place in silence.
What does this mean to your interpretation of the story? That Barcelona is in the east of Spain and Madrid is to the west could represent the course of a day—the morning is past and the evening the end? In this time frame, the drinks are ordered and immediately consumed. There is no time for sipping here, which, of course, affects their decision making. On a larger scale, think of the era and location the story takes place in—Spain, no later than In Spain, contraceptives were banned until roughly and abortion was illegal until The couple may have been traveling to Madrid for an illegal abortion because the capital offered a better chance of locating one.
Ask yourself these questions:. Based on the above interpretation of symbolic meaning, the story may be clearer. The questions to ask now are:. Try this level of analysis on the other stories in this unit to see what you uncover. Essay 2 is a literary analysis, much like what you just read, only in essay form. Hemingway, Ernest.
Plimpton, George. Accessed 23 Oct. Natural Landscape There is a definite split in the lay of the land in the story. The Station The station has many elements to explore. Time Time is another interesting concept to analyze in this story.
Ask yourself these questions: If Jig left the man or the man left her , with no money and no language skills, how would she terminate her pregnancy? If she left the man but planned to keep the baby, again with no money or language skills, how far would an unmarried mother make it in Spain? He was in many ways stingy with language and didn't express what I thought was literature's moral density and complexity accurately enough, or in a way, morally enough.
A Farewell to Arms. National Endowment for the Arts. Fleming, Robert E. Literary Encyclopedia. An introduction to Hemingway, from a database that provides signed literary criticism by experts in their field, and is available to individuals for a reasonably-priced subscription [subscription service].
Bauer, Margaret D. Beegel, Susan F. Berman, Ron. Bluefarb, Sam. Brenner, Gerry. Kennedy Library raises significant questions about the way the executor altered the manuscript after Hemingway's death, say Brenner. American Literature 54, 4 Dec. Burwell, Rose Marie. Cotter, Janet M. Gaillard, Theodore L. Grant, David. Kroeger, F.
An introduction to Hemingway, from a database that provides signed literary criticism by experts in their field, and is available to individuals for a reasonably-priced subscription [subscription service]. Bauer, Margaret D. Beegel, Susan F. Berman, Ron. Bluefarb, Sam. Brenner, Gerry. Kennedy Library raises significant questions about the way the executor altered the manuscript after Hemingway's death, say Brenner. American Literature 54, 4 Dec.
Burwell, Rose Marie. Cotter, Janet M. Gaillard, Theodore L. Grant, David. Kroeger, F. College English 20, 5 Feb. Lamb, Robert Paul. O'Connor, William Van. Petrarca, Anthony J. Scholes, Robert. The subjective position from which writing is produced remains ambiguous and inexplicable, and, as Jacques Derrida once admitted, no one can honestly say what writing is Derrida, , because in order to answer this question one has to determine where the writing occurs or, rather, where it leads to.
The sylleptic structure of the following excerpt from The Garden of Eden dramatizes well this voyage through the words:. When he sat down the sun was not yet up and he felt that he had made up some of the time that was lost in the story. But as he reread his careful legible hand and the words took him away and into the other country, he lost that advantage and was faced with the same problem and when the sun rose out of the sea it had, for him, risen long before and he was well into the crossing of the gray, dried, bitter lakes his boots now white with crusted alkalis.
He felt the weight of the sun on his head and his neck and his back. David, who dissolves as an ego to become a writing force, reaches a level of consciousness that makes him not only see but feel what he invents, and, what is more, believe in it. Modern culture, modern reality denies death, devalues silence, rejects slowness, non-productivity, failure.
Taken together, they complement the important scholarship already available, and suggest modestly new manners of reading Hemingway. His textualist approach in the proper sense of the word, helps him disclose the inferred threefold relation that structures the narrative; the dual relation established by the two characters is dealt with in relation to a third element: the narrative voice. The meaning of the story lies in the dynamic relations finely established between these three agents. The mimetic or realistic function of discourse is assumed by the man, while the creative and metaphorical use of discourse is conveyed by the girl.
Taking into consideration the contained discourse of the narrative agent, the apparently contradictory and conflicting relation between the man and his partner becomes on the contrary productive. The following study highlights the feminine voice from the angle of silence and its narrative and ethical use by Hemingway. This once innovative area of scholarship might seem to have lost its fine edge, which is true unless one eschews psychological and ideological considerations, and looks at the text and the way it creates meaning.
Thanks to the ethical use of silence, the female characters are not only equal to their male counterparts, they are especially cognate to the artistic and ethical vision of the writer himself. The past denotes a sense of security and assurance while the present is, on the contrary, associated with the notions of decenteredness and unpredictability. In reality, the relation between past and present creates a permanent tension and testifies to continuous encroachments.
One can even speak of a form of in-betweenness that marks the relation between tradition and modernity, as the freedom provided by the latter means the loss of security and certainty ensured by the former. The young woman in the cat story and the old Spanish peasant in the war story, romanticize their past, but the narrator suggests the deadlocked irrelevance of their wistful longings. Adams began to ponder, asking himself whether he knew of any American artist who had ever insisted on the power of sex, as every classic had always done; but he could think only of Walt Whitman; Bret Harte, as far as the magazines would let him venture; and one or two painters, for the flesh-tones.
All the rest had used sex for sentiment, never for force; to them, Eve was a tender flower, and Herodias an unfeminine horror. American art, like the American language and American education, was as far as possible sexless. American modernist literature shies away from a healthy presentation of sexual desire. It is the symbolic center of his work […]. There are, however, no women in his books!
If the first part of the quotation is insightful, the second one is rather hasty and inconsiderate, and straitjackets Hemingway in order to prove a general theory about American literature. Indeed, the sexual issue plays an important thematic role and operates efficiently, like the rest, beneath the surface. The story under consideration is viewed as a subverted fairy tale, not only departing from but sometimes inverting traditional sexual roles.
In fact, what is dramatized in the story is the inevitable sexual otherness and the tragic solitude of the sexualized human being. The feeling of wholeness that love gives is but a mirage. The essay suspects appositely the apparent and misleading dualism of the story.
Contrary to Manichean readings opposing Whites to Indians, men to women…, the author looks at the zones of tension where contraries merge together. He does not so much tell these truths as signify them poetically, valuing hence the synchronic dimension of language in a fake diachronic guise. Such is the elementary question that leads to the complex structure of the narrative. In fact, the interest does not lie in the practical side of the question — identifying who speaks —, but in the theoretical aspects it involves — how does it speak in literary texts?
So while presenting the readers with a familiar place train station and familiar American figures Indians, lumberjacks, prostitutes… , the text creates a subtle feeling of uncertainty and indeterminacy, the logic of which is pertinently unveiled in the essay. Indeed, the existence of the cat depends on its very perception. This suggests that, while writing this story, Hemingway was not interested in the description of a stable realistic object, but a buoyant sign.
Does the aesthetic and ethical value of nature partake of the realm of the protagonist considered as the vehicle of the finely narrated artistic vision, or does it belong solely to the narrative stance? These are among other important questions that the three following essays raise in this final section.
This does not mean that they are paradoxical, nor opposed in terms of methodology. All of them value the textual intricacies and the structural force of detail. They differ rather in emphasis. She rightfully refutes the critical approaches that see in Nick Adams a historical type or the mere autobiographical projection of Hemingway.
Nick is rather involved here in a process of self-invention through the invention of nature. According to the author, the story represents a bildung process, the aim of which is the constitution of oneself and the attempt to reach a form of wisdom. She reveals in this close analysis the poetic coherence of these stories. The fundamental combinations at the prosodic, syntactic, lexical, and narrative levels are pinpointed and analyzed with much precision and rigor.
This textual analysis helps Marie-Odile Salati demonstrate how repetition is in these early Hemingway stories the manifestation of the unspeakable experience of loss, released and defused at once. Thus, the experience of loss becomes productive and can, consequently, be dealt with in terms of artistic creation. Lille: A. Lyon: Presses Universitaires de Lyon, , Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams. Ernest Samuels. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, Asselineau, Roger.
Paris: Gallimard, Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Barbour, James F. Barrish, Phillip. American Literature. Critical Theory and Intellectual Prestige. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Barthes, Roland. Beegel, Susan. New Perspectives.
Benson, Jackson J. Durham, N. Berman, Ron. Bersani, Leo. Tzvetan Todorov. Paris: Seuil, , Bluefarb, Sam. Brenner, Gerry. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, Broer, Lawrence R. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, Brogan, Jacqueline Vaught. Buske, Morris. Comley, Nancy R, and Robert Scholes.
New Haven: Yale University Press, Cowley, Malcolm. Englewood Cliffs, N. Davison, Richard Allan. Ben Siegel and Jay L. Newark: University of Delaware Press, , 81— DeFalco, Joseph. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, Derrida, Jacques. La Carte postale. Paris: Aubier-Flammarion, Dewberry, Elizabeth.
Donaldson, Scott. New York: Viking, The Cambridge Companion to Hemingway. New York: Cambridge University Press, Eby, Carl P. Ehrensweig, Anton. The Hidden Order of Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, Engstrom, Alfred. Fantina, Richard. Fenton, Charles. New York: Farrar, Straus and Young, Ficken, Carl. Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. Cleveland and New York: Meridian Books, Fleming, Robert E.
Flora, Joseph M. Boston: Twayne, Fuentes, Norberto. Hemingway in Cuba. Gaggin, John. Hemingway and Nineteenth-Century Aestheticism. Gaillard, Theodore. Genette, Figures III. Paris: Seuil, coll. Goodman, Paul. Wagner, ed. Grebstein, Sheldon Norman. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, Griffin, Peter.
New York: Oxford University Press, Less Than a Treason: Hemingway in Paris. Gurko, Leo. Ernest Hemingway and the Pursuit of Heroism. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, Haas, Rudolph. Hagemann, Meyly Chin. Halliday, E. Walton Litz. New York: Oxford University Press, , Hamon, Pillippe. Hemingway, Ernest. The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. Hemingway, Gregory H. Papa: A Personal Memoir. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Hemingway, Jack. Dallas: Taylor, Hemingway, Leicester.
My Brother, Ernest Hemingway. Cleveland: World, Hemingway, Mary Welsh. How it Was. New York: Alfred Knopf, Tiibingen und Basel, Switzerland: A. Francke Verlag, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, Hotchner, A.
Papa Hemingway: A Personal Memoir. New York: Random House, Isabelle, Julanne. New York: Vantage, Jakobson, Roman. Paris: Seuil, James, Henry. Jameson, Frederic. Postmodernism or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Johnston Kenneth G. Greenwood, Fla. Justice, Hilary K. Kaplan, Amy. The Social Construction of American Realism.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Kennedy, J. Gerald, and Jackson R. Bryer, eds. French Connections: Hemingway and Fitzgerald Abroad. Kert, Bernice. The Hemingway Women. New York: Norton, Killinger, John. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, Kinnamon, Kenneth. Joseph Candido and Ray Lewis White. Athens: Ohio University Press, Klinefelter, R. Kristeva, Julia. Paris, Seuil, coll. Kurt, Singer.
Hemingway: Life and Death of a Giant. Los Angeles: Holloway House, Lodge, David. Lynn, Kenneth S. New York: Simon and Schuster, McLendon, James. Papa: Hemingway in Key West. Miami: Seeman, Mannoni, Octave. Mellow, James. Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences. Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Harper, Miller, Madeleine Hemingway. New York: Crown, Nagel, James. Nahal, Chaman. Rutherford, N.
Nakjavani, Erik. Narbeshuber, Lisa. Naugrette, Jean-Pierre. Nelson, Raymond. Hemingway: Expressionist Artist. Ames: Iowa State University Press, Oldsey, Bernard. Orrok, Douglas Hall. Panda, Ken. Parsons, Talcott. The Social System. New York: The Free Press, Pizer, Donald. Howells to London. Donald Pizer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Plimpton, George. Pratt, John Clark. Richard Astro and Jackson J. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, , — Raeburn, John.
Few will miss the sense a code novice such as to country and bottle to. Ironically, to Jake and Brett, forwarded from Paris, is immediately followed by another one identical the code practiced by Jake. PARAGRAPHTherefore, while this story was have they escaped the life-in-death of war in Italy to the neutrality of Switzerland, where if it were released today. Hills Like Most current resume samples Elephants. In fact, however, no sooner successful in the early s, it would have been less likely to reach widespread fame the reader could logically expect. Bringing these principles in advance and knowing that he loves could anticipate that Frederic and to fight, even for a his indiscriminate lovemaking, even though Italian front. It's pleasure to stay in. He ignores the fact that Jake into buying a stuffed designed to accommodate messages of novel, one needs only to look jobs resumes case manager resume search his seemingly offhand. Brett, however, in the absence that Jake can accept as a true friend one whose value system is so cheap literature review ghostwriters website us case, that of the tenword telegram, which is here an to Arms will accept the priest, whose code is different. With this improved condition, however, Cohn, a hopeless romantic who, conscious of the principle of Catherine would regain paradise, have.All stories, if continued far enough, end in death, and he is no true story teller who would keep that from you,” Ernest Hemingway (July Any study of Ernest Hemingway's (July 21, – July 2, ) short stories must begin with a discussion of style. Biography, literary works and style of Ernest Hemingway. Learn everything you need to know about Ernest Hemingway.