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Karen May 25, Writer-managers serve a key role in the structure of most paper-writing companies, though responsibilities will vary depending upon the company's operational model. In nearly all cases, the writer-manager will serve as a liaison between the company and the independently contracted writer; and as a mediator in conflicts, disagreements or confusion between writers and customers. Given the linguistic challenges that so many ghostwriting clients face, the third of these occasions happens rather frequently.
Each company has its own way of processing orders and delegating assignments. The mode of delegation is usually a determining factor in the operational model. Below is a brief outline of the three preeminent operational models. The models outlined here are drawn largely from personal experience. That said, most of the companies I've worked for are fairly representative of trends in the general marketplace.
A writer-manager will send assignments directly to a writer based on declared areas of expertise. Assignments will come with instructions, deadline, and amount of compensation. When a writer agrees to take on an assignment, he or she becomes responsible for submission by the deadline.
A writer-manager will send instructions to a select number of staff writers, often based on a writer's area of expertise. Based on the deadline, length, and anticipated difficulty of an assignment, writers will quote prices for prospective assignments. Though writers create their own bids, relative market value still applies. Bids that overshoot the anticipated value are rarely matched with assignments.
Another writer will likely quote a fairer price. When a writer's bid is accepted, he or she becomes responsible for meeting the deadline. This is the most sophisticated and efficient front- and back-end model. When an order is placed through a website, pricing is automatically determined per-page based on the length of time until deadline.
The order is also automatically placed on a bulletin board visible to writers by way of username and password. This gives the writer an opportunity to visit the board and select orders at his or her discretion. The ghostwriting industry enjoys a customer base comprised of three primary demographics.
These are the likeliest perpetrators of ghostwritten plagiarism:. International students often arrive at American universities without a background or meaningful support in English composition. According to a study, these students lack the skills for paraphrasing and inferential use of sources possessed by their English-speaking counterparts. International students comprise a ready-made source of revenue for the ghostwriting business.
These students turn to ghostwriting services out of a combination of desperation and expedience. A startling number American students—for whom English is a native languagewill actually suffer from many of these exact same deficits. The viability of the ghostwriting industry shines a spotlight on the tragically overlooked prevalence of students at the undergraduate and even graduate levels who simply lack the skills or knowledge to produce university-level writing or research.
Some ghostwriting clients simply lack the motivation and interest to complete their own work, a condition that Farnese et al. In other cases, the lazy student may, in addition to being unmotivated, lack the necessary writing and research skills to complete the task at hand. These students turn to ghostwriting services as the path of least resistance. As we proceed with the discussion of detection and prevention, it will be useful to consider that different strategies may apply to different demographics.
In the conversation on prevention, the motivation to cheat is of considerable importance and can help educators to target students with preventative strategies. As we will find, removing the sense of pressure or dread that comes with academic deficiency or misplacement may be an important part of contending with ghostwriting and with academic cheating on a more general scale.
Ghostwriting is hardly a new phenomenon nor is it one inherently dependent upon web proliferation. As I mentioned, I myself got started the old-fashioned way, taking orders from fellow Rutgers classmates and accumulating a growing independent business entirely by word of mouth. However, the web has proliferated and simplified cheating, dramatically expanding the accessibility, visibility, and ease with which students can lift, recycle or otherwise claim authorship of work that is not their own.
Consequently, the growth of this industry helped to provoke the growth of the plagiarism-detection industry of which Turnitin is a leading example. Turnitin represents the gold standard in plagiarism detection. Even so, given the limitations inherent in plagiarism detection, even Turnitin has no way to bring its extensive empirical data to bear on ghostwriting. However, among the 10 types identified, ghostwriting is not included.
This is not because Turnitin is unaware of the ghostwriting industry. To the contrary, the company has shown itself quite open and dedicated to better understanding the impact of ghostwriting. Still, where ghostwriting is concerned, educators lack a streamlined, technology-driven detection method like that which drives Turnitin's originality detection software. For many ghostwriting customers, this detection software actually provides a modicum of comfort, suggesting that the instructor may not be reading the work and simply be letting automated plagiarism checkers test for originality.
Presuming the ghostwriter has created a wholly original piece, Turnitin software will not detect any irregularity. Further, it is quite common for a customer to include a specification in their instructions that all completed work will be passed through Turnitin or a similar program. This means that the ghostwriter can often make practical decisions that will ensure no irregularities are detected.
The motivation to do so is simply sound business practice and helps to facilitate repeat patronage. The ghostwriter's goal is to produce an assignment that will pass the student's often admittedly low personal standards. But most ghostwriting companies also succeed on the strength of the return customer. Each company that I worked for provided the customer with a field in the order form by which to request a preferred writer.
I would receive an automatic email notification telling me that a customer had requested my services. I've even completed entire semesters, academic years, or courses of study for individual students across periods as long as two and three years. In addition to the implication that such repeat customers have clearly succeeded in passing ghostwritten work off as their own on multiple occasions, this repeat business denotes that ghostwriters are actively engaged in practices designed to evade detection.
With these conditions in mind, we point to a handful of detection and deterrence challenges that are unique to ghostwriting:. Most ghostwriting companies are faithful to this service guarantee and will terminate independent contractors for failure to comply. Though the optimistic educator may take some comfort in the view that paper mills are not legitimate enough to constitute a threat, there are rules for professional paper writers and the more successful companies will enforce them.
Chief among these rules is the responsibility to provide completely original, never-before-used material crafted to respond to a specific assignment inquiry. This product is the cornerstone of this industry's success. Ghostwriting places the onus on the educator to have initial cause for suspicion.
This requires the individual grading a written assignment to sense a disconnect between the student and the assignment, which of course requires some initial familiarity with the student in question. There are a great many educational contexts in which this is difficult if not impossible. When I began my ghostwriting career at Rutgers, there was no mystery as to why the semi-coherent, fraternity-bound, budding alcoholics who used my services were able to pass my work off as their own.
Courses are routinely taught in lecture halls containing hundreds of students; written assignments are often reviewed by teaching assistants; and any personal interaction between professor and student is strictly optional. Naturally, students who plan on defrauding the professor are distinctly less likely to pursue a personal relationship with him or her.
These challenges are compounded even further as a consequence of distance learning, online education and for-profit education the last of which I mention here both because much of it is exclusively online and because ghostwritten cheating abounds in this context. Learning contexts like this demonstrate just how unlikely it really is that a professor will have cause to question the authorship of an assignment once it has passed through plagiarism detection software.
That said, ghostwriting is not confined to the web class or giant lecture hall. I was also often hired to write in direct response to professor feedback, especially in post-graduate contexts. This suggests that some students are not dissuaded from employing ghostwriting services in more intimate settings, even as intimate as one-on-one interaction with an academic mentor. Cheating is, of course, a serious allegation and students have a lot riding on the completion of their education.
So obviously, the average student will go to great lengths to deny any such allegations. Students are not afraid to get litigious if need be. The point is, as an educator, one must be very careful about levying the accusation without hard evidence. This is true regardless of the chosen method of cheating. What differentiates ghostwriting is that, true to its name, it leaves a far less visible trail. Assuming that an instructor has cause to suspect an assignment, he or she now has the unenviable obligation to demonstrate guilt based on a well-informed and probably correct suspicion.
The process is an uphill climb. Plagiarism detection software or even a quick Google search can verify suspicion of a cut-and-paste job and yield incontrovertible proof. But when it comes to ghostwriting, unless the student accidentally leaves the receipt attached to an assignment which I wouldn't completely rule out as a possibility , the likelihood of producing evidence is low.
Part of the discussion of detection and deterrence must logically revolve around finding ways of accumulating concrete proof based on suspicion. Taken together, these challenges render many traditional methods of combating plagiarism even flimsier when applied to ghostwriting. This means that most professors have almost certainly graded ghostwritten material without ever realizing it.
There are perhaps as many others who have graded ghostwritten materials with some level of suspicion but without the means, institutional support or emotional energy to translate this into proof. The challenges specific to ghostwriting call for an approach that is not merely reactive i. That is to say that educators and institutions can take certain preemptive steps that both discourage cheating by way of ghostwriting and place educators in a more advantageous position to spot questionable work and acquire meaningful proof of its third-party authorship.
I'll introduce this section with a well-traveled and apocryphal anecdote that I remember hearing in my college days:. A college student spends an entire semester goofing off. He doesn't show up for a single class. It's in a person lecture hall so he figures nobody will miss him. Naturally, he shows up for the final exam with all the answers written on his arm.
He finishes the exam and brings it to the front of the room. As he places it on the top of the test pile, the professor looks down at him from the lectern. He observes the cheat-sheet scrawled on the student and demands to see his arm. Don't you know who I am!? The professor admits that he does not. So the student shoves his exam in the middle of the stack and quickly departs. There is a lot about the system of higher education, as it is today, that makes cheating easy. The goal of the present account is to help educators create a campus atmosphere where cheating is neither as easy nor as desirable.
This calls for a combination of reactive and proactive measures, an encompassing approach that broadens and gives nuance to the fight against cheating. There are far-reaching educational issues implicated by the viability of the ghostwriting industry. To reiterate the challenges facing students with learning or language deficiencies, policing alone does not get to the root of the problem.
Some very real structural, practical and even ethical flaws in our educational system are reflected in these demographics and in students' decisions to cheat. The goal of this strategy, therefore, is to take on cheating both as a violation of academic integrity and as a symptom of some broader problems within our educational system. This underscores the 4 D's Strategy, which confronts ghostwriting and its underlying causes through Design, Deterrence, Detection and Dedication.
Design refers to the way a professor constructs assignments, course materials, tests, classroom time and the semester-long curriculum. This is an area in education where quality control runs the gamut from excellence to criminal incompetence. There are plenty of professors who work tirelessly to tailor assignments, materials and examinations to remain in-step with constantly evolving subject matter, student culture and best practices.
But there are also plenty of professors who recycle old materials without scrutiny and who depend wholly on text-based content which most students could acquire without professor mediation. It's not hard to guess which of these approaches is more vulnerable to cheating. With those professors who take the latter approach, students may find cheating not only easier but also more susceptible to rationalization. According to a study from Teaching Sociology , strategic design is one effective path to mitigating the risk of plagiarism.
An article compiled by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority NZQA , which provides an overview of cheating prevention strategies in place in New Zealand's institutions of higher learning, confirms this assertion. One of the most common forms of cheating involves submitting work produced by students in previous courses.
Relatively subtle changes to assessment tasks can be enough to alert markers to cheating. Case studies, contexts, data sets, and actual items can be changed while assessing the same outcomes. When I worked as a ghostwriter, lazy students helped me to make my living but it was the lazy professors that made my life easier.
The task of pretending to be a student in somebody's class is greatly simplified when the professor takes no special steps to differentiate the course, its content, or its assignments from the many millions of other courses that have been taught on the same exact subject from time immemorial.
In other words, if I am assigned the same five page paper asking the same three or four general questions about Plato's Republic that I've been assigned and asked four dozen times in the past, I can presume the professor is taking as much care to grade the assignment as he or she did to write it…that is to say, none. Even just 20 years ago, the risks of reusing the same basic assignment or exam were modest.
There have always been on-campus repositories of completed assignments available for student purchase. However, the accessibility of these repositories can't compare with the information that can be gotten online. This is not to suggest that the ghostwriter will struggle to complete an assignment that is otherwise unique and original in nature.
It's only to point out that the less original and unique an assignment, the less likely that an instructor will have any way of differentiating the work of a student who's been in the classroom from that of one who has not. To say it simply, a generic assignment begets a generic essay. If this is all an instructor seeks from his or her students, said instructor makes it nearly impossible to differentiate between the work of a pupil and the work of a person who has never set a foot in the lecture hall.
If, by contrast, one designs materials, assignments and exams with thought, care, and specificity, one has much better odds of spotting the work of an outsider. Partial emphasis on in-class writing exercises, when supplemented by out-of-class assignments, is a powerful way of getting to know students' writing capabilities and voices. Class time should be used to challenge students with unique and fun writing exercises. There are a lot of ways to integrate this strategy into an existing curriculum.
Assignments can be formal and woven into the grading structure or they can simply be loosely defined writing activities designed to promote critical thinking. The important thing is that these assignments will require students to write thoughtfully and uniquely on course-relevant subjects, providing the instructor with readily verifiable writing samples throughout a semester.
No matter how convincingly a ghostwriter writes on a given subject, this approach provides a document whose authorship is not in question as a point of comparison. For assignments of greater depth, a balance between in-class and out-of-class draft-writing offers a measure of oversight even as the student pursues an assignment independently. The caveat with this strategy is that there may be nothing stopping the student from outsourcing each and every draft of the assignment. However, using the multi-draft process can stretch an assignment out across weeks or months.
This results in a greater length of exposure for the cheating student. Instead of the once-and-done security of getting away with a single ghostwritten assignment, each student knows that his or her work will be held up to sustained and ongoing scrutiny.
By inserting one-on-one conferences into this draft process, the instructor can heighten this scrutiny by requiring each student to defend the approach, argument, and decisions comprising the written work. This is also an opportunity to challenge students to craft unique arguments based on course content.
Assignments that incorporate personal experiences and interests not only offer students a welcome reprieve from the rote, repetitive, or regurgitation-based work that makes up so many courses, they also make it more difficult for the ghostwriter to assume a student's identity.
This challenge may even strain the credibility of submitted assignments to the point of making them more detectable. Professors might be shocked to learn that many of the customers I've served have requested personal essays without providing any personal information. In other words, the assignment instructs the student to write about a life-changing experience and the customer leaves me, the ghostwriter, with the power to define this life-changing experience.
Knowing one's students on a personal level might, in this case, provide more than enough information to peg suspicious assignments. Naturally, not every subject or discipline lends itself to personalization. But in many of the liberal arts subjects, where cheating is decidedly rampant, there is an opportunity to create assignments that correlate to the everyday lives, individual cultures, geographical backgrounds, ethnic makeups, personal histories, and extra-curricular interests of one's students.
Most ghostwriters have no problem with a little creative writing but, again, this approach gives an educator the chance to spot a mismatch between a student and the written work. Just as experienced ghostwriters become accustomed to seeing the exact same assignments over and over, they also get accustomed to seeing the same sources and course materials again and again.
Instructors can reduce the ease with which an outsider can replicate old assignments by updating course materials and creating new assignments on an annual basis. Ghostwriters rely on materials that are readily available online and prefer the efficiency of assignments that can be summoned from memory and experience. Creating challenging course material that is not drawn verbatim from standard texts can serve as a distinguishing feature when it comes time to read students' work.
In addition to creating unique course materials, a course should be designed to distinguish the in-class experience from the experience of reading about something on Wikipedia. Assignments that rely strictly on standard texts make the ghostwriter's job very easy.
Most texts are readily available online. By contrast, a lecture, a class discussion and the experience of being a part of both should be something unique and impossible to replicate. Nobody's saying every professor has to be Robin Williams in Dead Poets Society , but every professor should give his or her students something they can't get on the Internet.
Naturally, if they can get it on the Internet, so can any ghostwriter. The goal is obviously not to eliminate, supersede, or overlook the standard texts. The classics are important. But differentiating what happens in a classroom and calling for written work that reflects this differentiation do create a genuine challenge for the ghostwriter.
Predictable testing methods i. Multiple-choice, machine-graded exams help the student differentiate between reporting to class on test day and outsourcing take-home writing work. Merging essay-writing and test-taking removes this impression. Instructors can create mixed format tests that include multiple-choice, essay questions, short-answer questions, etc. This approach requires the student to demonstrate writing capacity during in-class testing.
Once again, this approach results in the creation of a written document that one can be certain originated from the student in question. This forms a good basis for comparison with suspicious take-home work and—insofar as it also might give the student pause before submitting ghostwritten work—also makes an excellent segue into our discussion on deterrence.
Deterrence refers to ways of diminishing the inclination, motive, or desire to purchase a ghostwritten paper. A Research in Higher Education study, seeking to understand the motives behind student cheating, finds that cheating is often rational in nature. That is, students at least believe that they are cheating out of ease, normalcy, or necessity. The study finds that the onus falls on instructors to live up to certain student expectations regarding clarity and engagement of course content.
The study identifies this as the best route to deterring the rationalized impulse to use a ghostwriting service. In other words, deterrence should revolve around strategies that make cheating seem less rational. The NZQA suggests that one way to deter cheating is to be in a state of constant evidence-gathering.
The NZQA notes that such evidence can extend from written work to a mix of formative and summative assessments as well as informal ongoing observations. The article points out that this would serve as a beneficial way to help TAs or graders identify writing inconsistencies even without their having the opportunity to know the students personally.
The NZQA points out that while strategies such as one-on-one conferencing may seem time-consuming, this approach could actually occupy less time than setting, proctoring, and grading exams. This research is compatible with my experience to some extent. I have also generally observed that students are more motivated to cheat in contexts where professors aren't particularly motivated to teach. Students know when a professor is disengaged from the subject, the class, or the general profession of educating our youth.
The Honor System is a useful way to ensure that students understand what is expected of their work in terms of originality. But it makes for a poor deterrent on its own. The customers who contact ghostwriting services out of laziness or a feeling of being overburdened by their various personal and academic responsibilities are generally not moved by the ethical quandary of cheating.
When they express concern to the ghostwriter about the process of purchasing and receiving a ghostwritten paper, all of this concern focuses on the fear of being caught. While many of the suggestions below revolve around student engagement as a way of deterring cheating, they work best when backed by sound detection strategies such as those outlined in the subsequent section. Individualization of the educational experience can instill in the student a greater sense of commitment to course materials and to the knowledge and career opportunities thereby implied.
Large lecture halls and online courses can create a sense of anonymity for the would-be cheater. Instructors can remove this sense of anonymity by creating opportunities where students can advance along individual research paths while sharing the same larger educational experience. Strategies include greater research subject flexibility, more opportunities for independent study and the chance to complete work directly relevant to a chosen career path.
Students will be less inclined to employ the services of a ghostwriter if they believe that what they are researching will actually lead to pertinent knowledge and skills with value beyond university halls.
One thing that large universities and online courses have in common is that, if one desires, one can go an entire semester without ever once personally meeting a professor. There is comfort in this anonymity. Removing this comfort creates a deterrent that does not otherwise exist. Strategies such as mandatory and regular one-on-one conferences can create a relationship between student and professor that can't be avoided.
With respect to online courses, videoconferencing applications are now readily available and standard for laptops, home computers, and smartphones. By building conferencing or videoconferencing into the semester, the instructor fosters a relationship with his or her students that will function as its own deterrent. Mandatory class participation heightens the imperative for students to become familiar with course content.
Mandating contributions to class discussions gives students a strong incentive to establish a consistent voice and perspective on course subjects. Class discussion helps to create a connection between the student and certain ideas, perspectives, and ways of expressing oneself on a given subject.
The more intensive and exciting the in-class discussion, the harder it will be for students to divorce themselves from the ideas stated in class. As a ghostwriter, I have completed countless assignments on controversial social issues like gun control, abortion, affirmative action, and the War on Terror. In every case, the student is likely to have a well-defined position and some fairly personal reasons for that position.
By creating a safe educational context in which these positions can be shared, explored, defended, and held in civil contrast with one another, the instructor can deter the student from outsourcing the expression of these positions when it comes time to write. This approach forces students to own the opinions and ideas that will ultimately form their written work. As a bonus, this approach is also more than likely helping students to refine their ideas in ways that make them better prepared to handle their written assignments.
This one is really and truly up to each individual educator. It is within every educator's power to be as creative, energetic, inspiring, original, unpredictable, and engaging as he or she wants to be. In reality, this relationship weighs heavier on the conscience.
Many students feel no remorse about cheating in a course from which there is a feeling of disengagement. Uninspired lectures, standard texts, and generic assignments serve as great ammunition for a student who wishes to rationalize his or her detachment. These conditions also help to reinforce the commonly held conception among students that education revolves around grading rather than learning. If this conception is true and in the least inspiring classrooms, it usually is , it really doesn't matter how a student comes by his or her grade so long as it is a good one.
Educators create a deterrent to this attitude by being their best selves in the classroom, during their office hours and beyond. In each instance, the student has added cause to be intimately familiar with his or her subject and is therefore deterred from handing the subject off to a ghostwriter.
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